小家电产品 结构分析

发布时间:2021-10-22 16:28:15

小家电产品结构分析
Leo Huang (黄明)

小家电产品结构分析
小家电结构问题主要存在以下几点:
二类产品(不带接地)的铭牌缺少二类符号 电源线保护性接地符号不正确,缺少圆圈 操作按键缺少标识,排水孔大小不满足要求 防触电不满足 机械稳定性不够,人手可触及危险的运动部件 机械强度不够,外壳经受0.5J冲击测试后破裂 控制旋钮等防护外壳的部件不能经受推/拉力测试 用户可触及自攻螺钉的尖锐头 隔热作用的隔热板可以从外面拆除 电源线接地线当线扣脱落时先受到拉力

2

小家电产品结构分析
小家电结构主要出现在以下几点:
保护阻抗仅仅只有一个 引线的连接固定仅仅依赖于锡焊 可触及的水直接与加强绝缘/基本绝缘接触 内部线碰到锋利的边缘/运动部件 黄/绿的内部线做为载流线 分压电容不是X电容 电源线线扣不能很好防止电源线被拉出 接地端子缺少防松垫圈 爬电距离/电气间隙不够 压敏电路短路后没有电流保护装置
3

电源线保护性接地符号不正确
Sub-clause 7.8 Protective earthing terminals shall be indicated by symbol 5019 of IEC 60417 电源线地线的接地端子必须标示保护性接地符号

4

操作按键缺少标识
Sub-clause 7.11 Controls intended to be adjusted during installation or in normal use shall be provided with an indication for the direction of adjustment. 控制旋钮缺少操作指示

5

防触电
Sub-clause 8.1 During insertion or removal of lamps which are located behind a detachable cover, protection against contact with live parts of the lamp cap shall be ensured. 当灯亮起来后,人手可触到带电部件

6

防触电
Sub-clause 8.1 Test probe should not be accessible to live part and part protected by basic insulation only. Test pin should not be accessible to live part. 测试指B不能碰到带电部件和基本绝缘, 试验指13不能碰到带电部件.

7

防触电
Sub-clause 8.2 It shall only be possible to touch parts which are separated from live parts by double insulation or reinforced insulation. 测试指B可触及基本绝缘和带电部件。

8

压敏电阻短路测试
Sub-clause 19.11.2 压敏电阻需要做短路测试,测试不允许导致固定布线系统电流保护装置动作

9

条款19.11.2

产品是电子控制的, 电子控制在处于“switch-off”状态下, 模 拟某电子元件失效 (短路和开路), 发热元件不得触发运作 电子元件的失效包括: ? 如功能绝缘(电器元件两端)不能满足爬电距离和电气间隙的要 求, 模拟短路 ? 开路任一电器元件 ? 短路电容,除非它满足 IEC 60384-14的要求 ? 短路任一电子元件的两极 ? 模拟集成电路的输出错误信号
? (线路图和照片)

10

继电器开关两端的 距离要满足功能绝 缘的要求

11

机械强度
Sub-clause 21 Apply three blows having an impact energy of 0,5 J to every point of the enclosure that is likely to be weak. 施加3次0.5J的冲击到器具外壳的薄弱点,下图所示位置被损坏,导致内部线可触 及。

12

排水孔
Sub-clause 22.6 Drain holes shall be at least 5 mm in diameter or 20 mm? in area with a width of at least 3 mm. 排水孔必须为直径不少于5mm的圆, 或者是面积不小于20 mm? 并且最小边不小于3mm.

13

防过压检查
Sub-clause 22.7 Appliances containing liquid or gases in normal use or having steamproducing devices shall incorporate adequate safeguards against the risk of excessive pressure. 带有装液体、气体的容器或会产生蒸汽的产品应防止压力过 高.

14

清洗时的受力测试
Sub-clause 22.8 For appliances having compartments to which access can be gained without the aid of a tool and that are likely to be cleaned in normal use, the electrical connections shall be arranged so that they are not subject to pulling during cleaning. 产品的隔间在清洗时,电气连接不应受到拉力.

15

控制旋钮等防护外壳的部件不能经受推/拉力 测试
Sub-clause 22.11 Knob should not be pulled out by 50 N without jerks for 10 s. 旋钮不应被50N 的拉力拉出来

16

用户可触及自攻螺钉的尖锐头
Sub-clause 22.14 Pointed ends of self-tapping screws or other fasteners shall be located so that they are unlikely to be touched by the user in normal use or during user maintenance. 用户可碰到自攻螺钉的尖端

17

隔热作用的隔热板可以从外面拆除
Sub-clause 22.17 Spacers intended to prevent the appliance from overheating walls shall be fixed so that it is not possible to remove them from the outside of the appliance by hand or by means of a screwdriver or a spanner. 限距部件应可靠固定,不允许用手或螺丝刀/扳手从器具外部将其拆除。

18

引线的连接固定仅仅依赖于锡焊
Sub-clause 22.31 Wires connected by soldering are not considered to be adequately fixed unless they are held in place near the terminals independently of the solder. 线的固定不应依赖于锡焊.

19

可触及的水直接与加强绝缘/基本绝缘接触
Sub-clause 22.33 For class II construction, conductive liquids that are or may become accessible in normal use shall not be in direct contact with basic insulation or reinforced insulation 可触及的水不允许直接跟加强绝缘/基本绝缘接触

20

保护阻抗仅仅只有一个
Sub-clause 22.42 Protective impedance shall consist of at least two separate components .保 护阻抗至少需要两颗Y电容串联。

21

内部线碰到锋利的边缘/运动部件
Sub-clause 23.1 Wire should be well fixed to prevent from coming into contact with sharp edges and moving parts during normal use. 内部线不应碰到运动部件/锋利的边 缘

22

分压电容不是X电容
Sub-clause 24.1 The capacitors used for voltage dividing must use X2 capacitor should comply with IEC 60384-14. 用于降压作用的电容必须使用X2电容

23

电源线线扣不能很好防止电源线被拉出
Sub-clause 25.15 After the 25 times 60/100N cord pull test and the 1 minute 0,25/0,35Nm cord torque test, the cord shall not be damaged or show appreciable strain at the terminals and the longitudinally displacement shall not be more than 2 mm.

24

接地端子缺少防松垫圈
Sub-clause 27.2 The clamping means of earthing terminals shall be adequately secured against accidental loosening. 接地端子没有防松垫圈

25

接地线先受到拉力
Sub-clause 27.3 For appliances with supply cords, the arrangement of the terminals, or the length of the conductors between the cord anchorage and the terminals, shall be such that the current-carrying conductors become taut before the earthing conductor if the cord slips out of the cord anchorage. 当线扣脱落时, 接地线应比L/N线后收到拉力.

26

Sub-clause 28.2 Electrical connections and connections providing earthing continuity shall be constructed so that contact pressure is not transmitted through insulating material that is liable to shrink or to distort unless there is sufficient resiliency in the metallic parts to compensate for any possible shrinkage or distortion of the insulating material.电气连接和接地连续性不应受 到塑料变形的影响

27

附加绝缘爬电/电气间隙
Sub-clause 29 Creepage and clearance between internal wire and accessible screw over supplementary insulation should not be less than 4,0/2,0mm.

28

功能绝缘爬电/电气间隙
Sub-clause 29 Creepage and clearance between L and N over functional insulation should not be less than 3,2/2,0mm (For pollution III) 电路板上L与N之间爬电距离和电气间隙不足 3.2mm/2.0mm

29

电机基本爬电/电气间隙
Sub-clause 29 Clearances and creepage distance between the motor winding and iron core over basic insulation should not be less than 2.0 mm. 电机绕组到铁心的爬电/电气间隙 不应小于2mm.

30

基本绝缘爬电/电气间隙
Sub-clause 29 Clearances and creepage distance between the terminal of heater and earthed sheath of heater over basic insulation should not be less than 4,0/2,0 mm. 发热管 端子到接地的外销不应小于基本绝缘的要求

31

强弱电爬电/电气间隙
Sub-clause 29 Clearances and creepage distance between the primary circuit (live parts) and secondary circuit (SELV parts) over reinforce insulation should not be less than 8,0/3,5 mm. 带点件的初级电路到次级输出电路(安全隔离电路)必须满足加强绝缘的 要求.

32

加强绝缘厚度

Sub-clause 29 The thickness of the insulation shall be at least – 2 mm for reinforced insulation 发热电阻的外壳厚度只有1.6 mm, 小于2.0 mm

33

Product recall

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Product recall

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Product recall

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Product recall

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Product recall

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